Classification of Weaves | Texhour
During weaving, the warp and the weft can be interlaced in a wide variety of ways to give different weave types. A weave may be characterized by its repeat unit. Basic weaves are those that require a minimum number of warp and weft yarns to constitute their repeat units.
Classification of Weaves
During weaving, the warp and the weft can be interlaced in a wide variety of ways to give different weave types. A weave may be characterized by its repeat unit. Basic weaves are those that require a minimum number of warp and weft yarns to constitute their repeat units, e.g. plain weave needs just 2 warp and 2 weft yarns. Twill weave needs 3 warp and 3 weft yarns while satin weave needs a minimum of 5 warp and 5 weft yarns. The classification of weaves are,
1. Plain weave
2. Twill weave
3. Satin weave
and also some of the other special weaves also explained below.
Each weft passes alternately over and under each warp in a square pattern. The fabric is symmetrical, with good stability and reasonable porosity. It has a flat surface & is easy to manufacture. Good for printing and embroidering.
Examples: sheeting, poplin, cambric, voile
However, it is a difficult fabric to drape. With thicker yarns, this weaving style gives excessive crimp and therefore is not used for very heavy fabrics.
Twill weaves are characterized by diagonal lines from one selvedge to another. More ends per inch and picks per inch than plain weave – consequently more cloth thickness and gsm.
Less binding points than plain weave – so gives a much better drape and softer hand feel.
The warp or the weft “floats” over two or more counterpart yarns. The next weft will “step” or offset one warp, and this creates the characteristic diagonal line (known as a “wale”) that identifies a twill fabric.
The number of wefts the warp goes over and then under are used to identify the interlacing pattern. So 2/1 is used to describe a fabric in which the warp yarns go over 2 and under 1 weft yarn, and the weave is referred to as “2up-1down”.
Similarly, in 3/1 twill the warp yarns will go over 3 wefts and then under one weft – “3up-1down”. These are warp-faced twills.
Weft-faced twills are demarcated as 1/2, 1/3 and so on. In these weaves, the weft thread floats over the warp.
Twills look different on the face and the back because a twill fabric has fewer interlacing than a plain weave it allows the yarns to move more freely and shape well to the body. Twill fabrics, therefore, drape better than plain weave fabrics. Twill fabrics have a higher reed-pick and therefore a higher weight) than plain weave fabrics.
Examples of twill weave: Drill, denim, gabardine, serge, tweed, herringbone, hounds tooth.
Right Hand Twill (RHT) also known as Z twill:
• The lines of grain run from bottom left-hand corner to the top right-hand corner of the fabric.
• Made famous as Levi's jeans standard fabric and now the most common twill weave used for denim.
• Usually woven with S-twist yarns (this highlights the wale)
• Right-hand twill creates a tighter, more compact material with a flat, smooth surface and more defined fading pattern to it than left-hand twill.
Left-Hand Twill (LHT) also known as S twill:
•Here the grain runs from the bottom right-hand-corner to the top left-hand corner of the fabric. Denim jeans that use the left-hand twill have a more open weave with a soft and fluffy feeling, especially after being washed. It's fading also tends to be more blurry than right-hand twill.
•Usually woven with Z-twist yarn – again this accentuates the wales.
Four (or more) shaft with warp floats in interrupted diagonal.
A variation is a sateen, with weft floats in interrupted diagonal.
Lustrous, with excellent drapability.
The floats are subject to snagging.
Two or more warps simultaneously interlaced with one or more wefts giving a balanced structure.
Contrasting colors often used.
Less durable than plain weave, soils easily, inexpensive.